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Vistas of Bharat : Indian Culture

Thiruvalluvar Day: The Ancient Wisdom Of The Tamil Poet

Celebrating the ancient wisdom and knowledge of the Tamil poet and philosopher, Valluvar, on Thiruvalluvar Day.



Thiruvalluvar Day, Thiruvalluvar, Thirukural, Sangam, Literature,

Thiruvalluvar, or just known as Valluvar, was a Tamil poet, philosopher and sage, a person who transformed a life from rags to riches. He lived during the Sangam age of the Tamil culture, or more specifically, the Sangam period. Even though born some two thousand years ago, his works, teachings and insights still hold grave value even today. Valluvar has talked extensively on subjective human topics and aspects like love, justice, life, good and evil, wisdom, etc. On Thiruvalluvar day, let’s have a look at the poet’s personal life and upbringing along with some of must read written words.

Valluvar: Personal Life And His Philosophy

The exact dates and particulars of Valluvar’s life remain unknown. According to historians, Valluvar was born in the 1st century CE in a village near modern-day Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, or also called the city of Madurai. The name ‘Thiruvalluvar’ translates to ‘the devotee of the Valluva caste’. He married at a young age to a woman named Vasuki, who was described as a “chaste and devoted lady, an ideal wife, who never disobeyed the orders of her husband, but always carried them out implicitly.” The couple had a daughter together.

As stated above, not much is known of Valluvar’s personal life, yet it is speculated that during his earlier years, he worked as a weaver, while other scholars speculate that he was most probably a government official in a district near Madurai. Later, he lived in recluse near Kanchipuram, where he penned his most prominent works ever, ‘Thirukkural‘.

Thiruvalluvar’s philosophy circled around living a divine life of sanctity. While major sages and philosophers suggested leaving the family behind and becoming a Sannyasin, Valluvar on the other hand, offered an alternative. He suggested and fostered the idea of attaining a balance between living a life of a householder and that of a sanctified divine and pure human being. He recorded these musings in his book, ‘Thirukkural‘.

Excerpts From Thirukkural And Other Writings Of Thiruvalluvar

In ‘Thirukkural‘, the poet preaches the goodness of honesty, humility and compassion. To lead a meaningful life, one must know the importance of self-discipline, education and economic independence. His central virtue, and according to him, the foundation of all lives, was love and compassion for others. He truly believed that our attitude and behaviour for others must always rest on kindness and goodwill. Such a tenets and virtues would promise a fulfilling life.

Some of the couples from ‘Thirukkural‘ are:

“The wound that’s made by fire will heal, But the wound that’s made by tongue will never heal.”

“Just as the alphabet ‘A’ is the beginning of all letters, so also, God is the beginning for this universe.”

“Learn the Shastras completely and then act according to their injunctions.”

“The Anicha flower will fade by smelling, but guests are more sensitive if the hosts turn their faces a bit.”

“There is no greater wealth than Virtue, and no greater loss than to forget it.”

“The lotus’ stem is as long as the depth of water, So men’s height is just as great as their inner strength.”

“Death is like sleeping in the burial ground; birth is like waking in the morning.”

Thirukkural‘ is still a prominent book in Tamil literature, read and taught in the state. It is considered as the universal Bible. For his wise words and universalistic and timeless knowledge, Thiruvalluvar is honoured everyday in Tamil Nadu on the 15th or 16th of January.


Vistas of Bharat : Indian Culture

Indian Food As A Cultural Artefact

From Rajma Chawal to Thanda Kulfi, let us have a tasteful and delightful conversation on the role of cuisines in India.'



Indian food, Indian culture

An amalgamation of its distinct culture and traditions, food is just as important a component of the unity and diversity of India. Food in India is a dance of delicacy, a celebration of tastes, textures, and colours that are an integrated outcome of various regional and cultural influences. Each state, culture and religion in India has collectively made their unique cuisines a symbol of cohesion, generosity, acceptance, comfort, solidarity and most importantly hospitality.

Reasons for Diversity in Indian Delicacies

The food of the various regions of India is carefully crafted to suit the resident of the region. For example, the locals of Rajasthan consume chilli or spicy food to ensure that their internal body temperature is at par with the external temperature. This is done to maintain homeostasis and protect themselves from illnesses caused by fluctuations between internal and external temperature. The same goes for the regions of south India. Whereas the majority of regions of north India have a predominance of gravies since a lot of whole grains and lentils are cultivated in the region. And thus, that became the staple for the ancestors of the north. The coastal regions have a predominance of seafood as their main ingredient. This is because it is readily available. And fishing was and still is a primary source of income for those living in the coastal areas.

Hence what was once a source of readily accessible nutrition for our ancestors in the various regions of India, has now been passed down for decades and ingrained itself as the “Regional Delicacies” and “Festival Specials” and most importantly embedded itself in Indian culture. This is also why food serves as a method by which a person can reconnect with their heritage and cultural identity which is an integral part of one’s uniqueness of personality.

Traditional dishes, methods of cooking, recipes, and special ingredients differ for each person, family, culture and region. But one fact remains the same, all these are very carefully guarded secrets in many Indian families. And are passed down from generation to generation.

Are All Indian Dishes Truly Indian?

Many of the dishes that we know today to be “the pictorial representation of Indian cuisine” actually didn’t originate in India. A few of them are as follows:

  1. The Quintessential North & Goan Pride: Gulab Jamun, Biryani, Kulfi, Samosa, Jalebi & Vindaloo

Could we ever think of Diwali without Gulab Jamun? Christmas without Vindaloo? And Eid without Biryani and Kulfi? And especially our sham ki chai (translation: evening tea) without a Samosa? From Persia, through the Mughals, we were introduced to Kulfi, Biryani, Gulab Jamun, Samosa, Jalebi and Vindaloo

  1. The Southern Indian Belle: Tamarind

An integral ingredient for a lot of dishes including Rasam and our favourite Puliyogre. From Madagascar, through African and Arab trades, we received tamarind. Across India Tamarind sweets too are very popular a delicacy among children and adults alike.

  1. The White Queen of South India: Idli

The ideal breakfast cake, from Indonesia we received the delicate rice cake we know now as Idli. It has now become an integral part of the dietary regime of South India. A symbol of home and comfort for many.

  1. The Adaptable & Nutritious King of North India: Rajma:

Had a bad day? Have a bowl of Rajma Chawal, a comfort that is loved across generations. From the new world – Central Mexico and Guatemala we were introduced to what we know today as the comfort food of India, Rajma or also known as red kidney beans.

India has always been a multifaceted nation. And this just further reinforces it. Through the centuries of the rich history of invasions, dynasties, rulers and heritage that shaped India into what it is today, so has the food which is a representation of the diversity and acceptance of India.

Indian Food As A Metaphor

However, while food is important in Indian culture, food pictures and the use of food as a metaphor have had a large effect on postmodern society. The authors utilise food and eating as a metaphor for memory, emotions, narrative history, relationships, power, consumption, cultural concerns, acceptance, resistance, and culture preservation. The culinary analogies contained within are a clear reflection of the Indian culture that is known for its political and social disintegration, postcolonial hybridity, and patriarchal oppression.


A crucial factor in determining cultures and identities is everyday cuisine, which frequently differs among countries. Food is a vital component of Indian culture and a source of national pride and identity for the populace. Indian food is diverse and incredibly rich, reflecting the nation’s multicultural background and pluralistic spirit. We must recognise the importance of food as a cultural and social symbol. And we must also seek to preserve and promote India’s culinary heritage.

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Vistas of Bharat : Indian Culture

Women’s Contributions to the Heritage of Indian Music

Celebrating the legendary women who have contributed to the rich heritage of Indian Music throughout our history.'



women in music, Indian musicians, Women in Indian music

The music traditions in India are extensive, and so has the contribution of women to these traditions. Dating back to ancient times women have played a pivotal role in the various forms of Indian music. From classicals of MS Subbalakshmi to devotionals of Mira Bai to Bollywoods of Lata Mangeshkar to many more. Let’s learn more about these notable women who have left their mark on history for their contribution to Indian art & culture.


Tamil Saint and Poetess Andal lived in the 9th century. Andal’s compositions are known for their passionate devotion and worship to Lord Vishnu and are recited in temples and homes across the state of Tamil Nadu. She was the only female Alvar among the twelve Hindu poet-saints of South India. As with the Alvar saints, she was affiliated with the Sri Vaishnava tradition of Hinduism. Posthumously she was considered an avatar of the goddess Bhudevi.

Credits: Google Images

Mukta Bai

13th-century Marathi saint and poetess Mukta Bai is known for her abhangas. Abhangas are a form of devotional poetry that is recited in praise of Lord Vitthal. These abhangas have become a part of the Bhakti movement and are still recited by devotees in Maharashtra. Mukta Bai or Muktai was one of the youngest Dnyaneshwars. Her thoughts were very simple and straightforward. Muktabai is also considered one of the first poets of Marathi.

Credits: Google Images

Lal Ded

14th-century Kashmiri saint and Poetess Lal Ded is popularly known for her compositions “Vatsun” which are known for their simplicity and their concentration on the spiritual path. Her vatsuns are to date recited by Kashmiri women. Her poetry was often used as a means of engagement with both Sufism and Shaivism. Her poetry has been translated widely, including English translations by Jane Hirshfield such as Women in Praise of the Sacred: 43 Centuries of Spiritual Poetry by Women (1994). Coleman Barks in Naked Song: Lalla (1992).

Credits: Google Images

Mira Bai

From the medieval period, we have well known Mira Bai. A mystic poet and a devotee of Lord Krishna. One of the proponents of the Bhakti movement which started to bridge the gap among the different castes and religions. Mira Bai’s poetry is still popular in North India and is recited by people of all castes and religions as well as being an integral part of syllabuses in India across schools and universities.

Credits: Google Images

Saraswati Bai Rane

Coming to the modern era. The first female vocalist to record music in India, Saraswati Bai Rane. A prominent figure in Hindustani Classical music and renowned for her renditions of thumris and dadras. Along with being a gifted singer, Saraswati Bai Rane was a talented actor as well, this led her to begin recording for films. She was one of the first female artists to render playback for Marathi and Hindi films.

Credits: Google Images

Begum Akhtar

20th-century renowned Indian Classical singer Begum Akhtar is known for her soulful renditions of ghazals and thumris. She was a pioneer in the field of ghazal singing. Akhtars soft looks and sensitive voice made her a sought candidate for films, which is the career Akhtar followed in her early years. Although she later decided to focus on her career in Indian classical music. She later moved to Mumbai to try singing playback in Hindi cinema.

Credits: Google Images

MS Subbulakshmi

First Indian musician to be awarded India’s highest civilian award, The Bharat Ratna, legendary Carnatic vocalist MS Subbulakshmi. She is well known for her pure and powerful voice and the ability to engage and touch the audience’s hearts through her music. She is hailed as the “Queen of Songs” for her extraordinary voice. Her fans fondly address her as M.S. She was a true pioneer of women’s empowerment and led by example, paving the way for contemporary women of her era.

Credits: Google Images

Kishori Amonkar

Kishori Amonkar was one of the leading vocalists in the Hindustani classical music tradition. She is renowned for her unique style and ability to improvise. She was also a disciple of the legendary singer Mogubai Kurdikar.  Amonkar lost her voice for two years in the late 1950s for unknown reasons. Amonkar’s approach to the expression of music is more emotional than traditional. Hence she frequently departs from structural traditions and is aimed at infusing the emotional appeal of popular styles into comparatively rigid classical traditions.

Credits: Google Images

Lata Mangeshkar

One of the most prominent playback singers in Indian cinema. Lata Mangeshkar, is regarded as one of the greatest singers in Indian music history. With over 30,000 songs in various Indian languages to her record. Lata Mangeshkar has contributed to the music industry through both devotional and cinema playback. BBC reports Lata Mangeshkar as one of the greatest singers in the world. Her contribution of 8 decades to Indian cinema has felicitated her with titles such as “Queen of Melody”, “Nightingale of India”, and “Voice of the Millennium”.

Credits: Google Images

Shuba Mudgal

Contemporary vocalist in the Hindustani classical tradition. Renowned for her experimentation with various genres of music, Mugdal can mix traditional and modern styles. She ran a website called for a while, aimed at lovers of Indian classical.” I am most familiar with the kayak and thumri-Dadra genres, and these are what I feel closest to. These forms continue to test me, challenge me, and put me through my paces,” quotes the singer.

Credits: Google Images

Girija Devi

Last but not least, a Celebrated vocalist in the Banaras Gharana, Smt. Girija Devi. She was a prominent figure in the field of Hindustani classical music and is reputed for her emotive and power-packed performances. Dubbed the ‘Queen of Thumri’ for her contribution to the genre.

Credits: Google Images

In the diverse Indian art & culture, the role of women in the music traditions of India has been significant, impactful and varied throughout history. From saints and poetesses to current-day performers. Women have enhanced the musical contributions of India with their exotic styles and contribution. They are legends and their legacy continues to be an inspiration influence to generations of musicians and music lovers alike.

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She Sculpts the Way: Usha Rani Hooja

A glimpse at the life and legacy of legendary self-taught Rajasthani sculptor – Usha Rani Hooja : Icon of the art world.'



Usha Rani Hooja

A glimpse at the life and legacy of legendary self-taught Rajasthani sculptor, Usha Rani Hooja, a true icon of the art world. Usha Rani Hooja was born in Jaipur, Rajasthan in 1940. Hooja is a self-taught artist, creating art for over 40 years. Her sculptures are an ode to the rich heritage and vibrant colours of Rajasthan. Her art depicts intricate details, distinct styles and traditional Motifs.

Hooja’s creative journey began in the 1970s when she had begun experimenting with clay and other materials. Hooja’s inspiration was the local craftsmen whose traditional techniques led her to explore further about the craft. Incorporating those techniques into her work. She held her first exhibition in 1974, following which her artwork has been on display in a variety of exhibitions and galleries across the globe.

Usha Rani Hooja: Inspiration

The sculptures of Usha Rani Hooja mirror the culturally rich heritage of Rajasthan. Her artwork intricately has its roots in the state’s traditional arts and crafts, local folklore, customs and mythology where she finds her inspiration. Hooja’s sculptures are a fusion of modern and traditional styles. She often experiments with a variety of materials and techniques to create unique and innovative art.

Her terracotta sculptures are one of the most significant contributions to the art world. Usha Rani Hooja spent 30 years working with terracotta. She has mastered the technique to create detailed and intricate sculptures that depict local traditions, for example, the potters of Rajasthan. 

An additional distinct aspect of Usha Rani Hooja’s artwork is her use of colours. She mostly uses bold and bright colours in her sculptures, mirroring the colourful and vibrant culture of Rajasthan. To add to their visual appeal she adorns her sculptures with detailed patterns and designs.


Usha Rani Hooja: Legacy

Hooja’s artwork holds deeper meaning along with being aesthetically pleasing. They are a reflection of social issues and are a commentary on the prevailing state of society. Her sculpture series titled “Women in Society”, is inspired by and depicts the struggles and hurdles Indian women are subjected to. The sculptures hold as a strong reminder of the need for gender equality and women empowerment.

Her artwork has garnered numerous accolades and awards. In the year 1992, she was awarded the Rajasthan Lalit Kala Akademi Award for her contributions to the field of sculptures. In 2013 she was awarded the Padma Shri, one of India’s highest civilian awards for her artistic contributions.

As of today, Usha Rani Hooja’s work is prevalent in inspiring and captivating art enthusiasts worldwide. Her sculptures serve as a symbol and reminder of the importance of preserving traditional art and craft and cultural identity. Her passion and commitment to preserving the legacy and cultural heritage of Rajasthan traditional art make her a true icon of the world of art.

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Vistas of Bharat : Indian Culture

Art as a Preservation of cultural identity

Indian art forms serve as a means of preservation of cultural identity in a growing modernized world, making them invaluable.'



Indian Cultural Identity

Indian art forms serve as a means of preservation of cultural identity in a growing modernized world, making them invaluable.

With modernisation at its pinnacle, the world has become more interconnected. Though this has several benefits for our rapidly evolving nature the risk of the loss of our cultural identities increases due to its ever-changing nature. Art plays a crucial role in preserving the cultural identity of societies. India has a variety of art forms such as dance, music, painting and architecture that reflect the diverse and unique cultural traditions that have existed for centuries in the country. Apart from being a medium of artistic expression, it promotes awareness and unity along with the preservation of Indian cultural identity.

Indian Cultural Identity: Diversity In Its True Sense

India has a complex interplay of diverse regional, linguistic and religious traditions that have over the centuries embedded themselves as the cultural identity of India. Indian cultural identity serves as a mirror of the country’s multicultural society. From the diversity of its people to their shared different traditions to their distinct vibrant colours to the rich history that they collectively share, all of it forms what we know as the Indian cultural heritage. Appreciating diversity in its true sense is what marks India as unique on the map and makes it different and stand out from the rest.

Preserving Indian Cultural Identity Through Dance

Indian Art forms like music, dance, and painting mirror the diverse cultural traditions and practices that prevail in India. These art forms play a vital role in the preservation of cultural identity. A prominent example of Indian art that has aided in the building of Indian cultural identity is the 8 Indian classical dance forms. Namely, Bharatanatyam, Kathak, Kuchipudi, Manipuri, Mohiniyattam, Odissi, Sattriya and Kathakali. Each dance forms have its distinct style and heritage and are both historically and culturally significant to India.

An ode to the Tamil Nadu cultural heritage. Generations have borne witness to Bharatanatyam. Characterized by its intricate footwork, elaborate facial expressions and hand gestures. Accompanied by Carnatic music which is another vital aspect of South Indian Culture. In addition, Kathak originated in Uttar Pradesh. Distinct for its rapid footwork, expressive and intricate hand movements accompanied by graceful spins. The dance form finds influence from both Hindu and Muslim cultures which is a reflection of the diversity of North Indian traditions throughout Indian history.

Preserving Indian Cultural Identity Through Music & Yoga

The art of Indian classical music is another form that has helped build cultural identity. Indian classical music dates back to the Vedic times and has a long and rich history, consisting of two main genres. The first one is Hindustani which is associated with North India along with its distinctive use of instruments like sitar and tabla. The second one is Carnatic music which is associated with South India and its distinct style and instruments such as the veena and mridangam. All of these have been passed down through generations and are kept alive through dedicated gurus and disciples. Indian classical music is booming today with young artists taking it up and fusing it with their creativity.

Yoga, the ancient art that originated in India has become an integral part of India’s cultural identity. It has been practised for thousands of years and has recently gained popularity around the world. Yoga has preserved the cultural practice of physical and mental well-being and spread across the world in doing so. Yoga is currently practised and sought after a lot across the world. The wonders of yoga are still rendering people across the world speechless. A lot of countries have also started yoga retreats for people to bake in the benefits of yoga and meditation.

Preserving Indian Cultural Identity Through Art

Indian traditional paintings such as Warli, Pattachitra and Madhubani are examples of art forms that serve as preservation of Indian cultural identity. Warli art is a painting style in Maharashtra that depicts the rural life of the state. Rooted in ancient traditions, they reflect and depict local beliefs, customs of the region, rural life, mythological stories and nature. Often used in festivals and ceremonies. These paintings serve as a means of preserving the cultural heritage of India. And are also a source of aesthetic pleasure that aid us in connecting with our past.

Ravi Varma’s commissioned art is an excellent example of diversity prevailing in times gone by. His painting is titled “Galaxy of Musicians”. This painting consisted of women from various states of India seated at a darbar, each with a distinctive face, clothing, jewellery and instrument. The painting now hangs in the palace of Mysore and is a beautiful reminder of the unity in diversity that makes up our cultural identity.

Preserving Indian Cultural Identity Through Everyday Antiques

Sculptures have been existing for centuries now. Just like the Greeks have their marble statues of their Gods and goddesses, India too has sculptures dating back to the ancient Indus civilizations. Figurines of clay toys, sculptures of women, animals etc. Sculptures are perhaps one of the most realistic art forms we can use to trace and preserve our cultural identity and heritage.

The textiles throughout the years have contributed enormously towards preserving our culture. Saris, sherwani, dhoti, salwar kameez, lungi, dupatta and lehengas are not just garments but rather serve as a historical symbols of our heritage. Saris and dhotis are perhaps the oldest Indian garments that can be traced back to the Indus Valley civilization. Along with garments jewellery too is a very beautiful form of art and craftsmanship. Every state of India has their unique style and pattern of jewellery that can be traced back to the history of that region. For example, the Maharashtrian mangal sutra is a pattern of two shells in gold with black and gold beads. Whereas the pattern of mangal sutra in the Northern part of India differs.

Preserving Indian Cultural Identity Through Architecture

Indian architecture is an excellent example of the preservation of Indian cultural identity. Architectural marvels such as the Khajuraho, Taj Mahal and Hampi not only promote cultural tourism, they are also a testament to India’s rich cultural heritage. Attracting visitors from around the world who come to relish their magnificence and learn about Indian culture and heritage.

India’s most haunted, the Bhangarh Fort of Rajasthan is an architectural beauty. Tourists and paranormal enthusiasts alike round up to catch a glimpse of the fort. And in turn, learn about the infamous legend that precedes it. The Ajanta and Ellora caves in Mumbai offer a glimpse into rock art. This garners many tourists and school trips alike to learn more about the paintings. The Qutub Minar, Iron Pillar, Red Fort, Mysore Palace, etc. These are all excellent examples of Indian architecture that have a rich history behind them.


Art forms of India play a pivotal role in preserving and building cultural identity. They are a medium of expression and promote awareness concerning culture. Indian art provides a bridge to the county’s rich heritage and culture and preserves it for future generations. They inspire artists worldwide. With globalisation spreading to every nook and cranny of the world, the preservation of cultural identity is important. Art forms do a perfect job of promoting and preserving identity and diversity of Indian culture.

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Vistas of Bharat : Indian Culture

The Indus Valley Civilisation: An Artistic & Cultural Legacy

With sophisticated systems for urban planning and trade, the Indus Valley Civilisation were way ahead of its time.



IVC, Harappa, Indus valley Civilisation

History is what makes our today. No matter how gruesome some tales maybe they all play a role in shaping our today. Sadly, there’s still a lot of history that we are yet to uncover especially those surrounding earlier civilisations that have greatly impacted today’s civilisation. One such civilisation was the Indus Valley Civilisation, also known as the Harappan Civilisation. It was a Bronze Age civilisation that thrived in the northern region of the Indian subcontinent between c. 3300 BCE to 1300 BCE, spanning an area from Pakistan to northeast Afghanistan and northwestern India. The civilisation’s major urban centres included Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.

The Indus Valley Civilisation: Origin

Named after the Indus River, which flows through the region where the civilisation developed, the origins of the Indus Valley Civilisation are still the subject of much debate among scholars. Some believe that it developed independently in the region, while others argue that it was influenced by earlier civilisations in Mesopotamia and the Middle East.

The civilisation developed around the fertile floodplains of the Indus River and its tributaries, which provided water for irrigation and supported the growth of agriculture. The early Indus Valley settlements were small farming communities, but over time they grew in size and complexity.

The Indus Valley Civilisation: Artistic Legacy

The artistic legacy of the Indus Valley Civilisation is a rich and diverse one, showcasing the creativity and skill of the people who lived in the region thousands of years ago. Although many of the artefacts and artworks produced by the civilisation have been lost or destroyed over time, those that remain provide a glimpse into the creativity and aesthetic sensibility of the Harappan people. Some of the key features of their art are:

  1. Sculpture and Figurines:

The Indus Valley Civilisation is known for its sculptures and figurines, which were made from a variety of materials including stone, bronze, and terracotta. Many of these sculptures depict animals, such as bulls, elephants, and tigers, as well as human figures in various poses. One of the most famous examples of Indus Valley sculpture is the “Dancing Girl” statue, which is made of bronze and depicts a young woman in a dynamic, lifelike pose.

  1. Jewellery and Metalwork:

The civilisation was renowned for its skill in metallurgy and jewellery-making. The Harappans produced intricate ornaments using gold, silver, copper, and bronze. These included necklaces, bracelets, earrings, and other types of jewellery. Many of these pieces were decorated with geometric patterns and designs, as well as depictions of animals and other natural forms.

  1. Seals:

The Indus Valley Civilisation is perhaps best known for its seals, which were used for a variety of purposes, including trade and administrative functions. These seals were usually made of steatite and often featured images of animals, humans, and other figures, as well as inscriptions in the Indus script. The seals were used to impress an identifying mark that could be used to authenticate documents or goods.

  1. Pottery:

The pottery of the Indus Valley Civilisation is notable for its distinctive shapes and designs. Many of the pots and jars were made using a pottery wheel and were decorated with intricate geometric patterns or images of animals and plants. Plain pottery was more common and was generally done on red clay. 

  1. Architecture:

The architecture of the Indus Valley Civilisation is another testament to the skill and creativity of its people. The cities of the civilisation featured large public buildings, such as granaries, bathhouses, and public assembly halls. The buildings were made using a variety of materials, including brick, mud, and stone, and often featured intricate patterns and designs on their walls.

The Indus Valley Civilisation: Cultural Legacy

The cultural legacy of the Indus Valley Civilisation, also known as the Harappan Civilisation, has had a significant impact on the history and culture of South Asia. Here are some key aspects of the cultural legacy of the civilisation:

  1. Urban Planning:

The Indus Valley Civilisation was also known for its sophisticated systems of urban planning. The cities were laid out on a grid system, with streets and buildings aligned with the cardinal directions. The cities also featured an advanced drainage system, with carefully constructed sewers and public baths.

  1. Writing System: 

The people of the Indus Valley also had a writing system that is still largely undeciphered. But it is clear that the civilisation had a sophisticated system of symbols and signs. The inscriptions found on these objects are usually short, consisting of no more than four or five characters. And many being very small in size. Although the script has not been fully understood, its existence demonstrates the Harappans’ advanced intellectual and cultural achievements. Dholavira Terracota Tablet is one of the most famous writings is found.

  1. Religious Practices:

The Indus Valley Civilisation is believed to have had a complex system of religious beliefs and practices. Although much of this remains unknown. The religion practised by the Harappan people is still a debatable topic. According to popular belief, the Harappans worshipped a fertility goddess who was represented as a mother figure.

  1. Technology:

The Harappan people, also known as the Indus Valley Civilisation, made significant technological advancements. This includes highly precise systems and tools for measuring length and weight. The Harappan Civilisation may have been the first to use bullock carts for wheeled transport. They were adept at building boats and watercraft as well. The evidence for this can be found in the discovery of a large dredged canal and a docking facility in the coastal city of Lothal. The Harappans were also skilled in architecture, with impressive constructions such as dockyards, granaries, warehouses, brick platforms, and fortified walls. A great example of it is Mohenjodaro. They were proficient in metallurgy and introduced innovative techniques in this field.

  1. Trade and Commerce: 

The Indus Valley Civilisation was known for its extensive trade networks. It connected the civilisation to other regions of South Asia, as well as the Middle East and Central Asia. This is evident from the Harappan seals found in other regions of Asia and a dockyard in Lothal.

The artistic and cultural legacy of the Indus Valley Civilisation is crucial to our understanding of the history and development of human civilisation.

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pocket mummy, short film,. Parzaan Dastur, Madhoo, Mother's love, maa
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Zohra Sehgal, Legendary Actor, Throwback Thursday, Artist, Dancer
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Shashi Deshpande, That Long Silence, Book Review, Patriarchy, Women Authors, TTI Bookshelf
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Paintings, Portraits, Art, Artist, Rangoli
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Maa ke Sapne, Short film, Life Tak, Mother's dreams, maa
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Gopinath Mohanty, Odia writer
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Dance Cover, Semi-classical, dancers, art, dance
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Rammat Gammat, short film
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Watercolour art
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Art & Craft5 months ago

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Swami Vivekananda, National Youth Day
Editor's Pick5 months ago

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Regional films, rewind 2022, bollywood, indian cinema, best films
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Radheshyam Sharma, Gujarati Poet, Poet
Editor's Pick5 months ago

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Madhusudan Rao, TBT, Odia literature, Odia, Odia language
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Nek Chand, Rock Garden, Artist
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Khushwant Singh, Train To Pakistan
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Navaldeep Singh, The Red Typewriter, Short Film, Love Story, Touching Story
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